Hey! Thought I could help out a bit
Rods are very personal, it's like a knife or a golf club, it's gotta fit your hand just right. My advice is to firstly get a spinning rod, they don't have a lot of issues, they're easy to learn, cheaper than other types, and just all around good. Length is usually personal, though I agree with kc175, a 6 foot rod or a 6' 6" rod is usually all you need, for freshwater in NS there's not much that'll be over 5-10 pounds and those are good for getting a good fight out of fish that don't weigh much. Lures and Baits differ from species to season to eating habits, and there's thousands of lures to choose from. Like techniques I'd say research them and choose what you feel like would work, in my experience's I've found luck with Spoon lures, Crankbaits, and Soft Plastic baits on a hook, but there are thousands and there's probably baits and lures that are 10x better than the ones I've mentioned, play around with it and check out the most recommended on the internet!
So, from my knowledge you don't need a fishing license if you're fishing saltwater, but you need one for freshwater and you can get ticketed if you don't have one, it costs about 30-40$ for a whole season at pretty much any sport store that sells fishing gear, or fishing gear store.
There's so many techniques you should take some time to look up some stuff and learn by getting on the water and casting a line, techniques vary from species too. For Mackerel a popular technique is to get a shiny fish imitation spoon or jighead and you let it fall to the bottom, then lift it up, then let it fall down to the bottom again, rinse and repeat. For Bass you can use most of everything, it just depends on what they feel like eating. For Trout people will throw a worm, Berkely Powerbait, or sometimes even corn on a small hook. The techniques differ from species, weather, season, and just what the fish feel like eating, so take a look around at that stuff and try them out on the water.
From what I heard and my experiences, Trout and Mackerel are good for eating, and I've heard that Chain Pickerel are good too but bony, I don't eat much fish so it'd be better to ask locals or others on here.
I'm a catch and release guy so I've still yet to learn how to filet a fish